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Sunday March 13th 2011


‘Mongol Empire’ Archives

Cultural Education and Foreign Relations of Mongol Empire

Among nomads, the Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy. However meritocracy was not used with Genghis Khan and his family. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history. Because of its [...]

Great Khans

The history of civilizations is created by peoples and nations. The contribution made by Mongolian people to the civilization of mankind is significant, but mysterious. Both western and oriental scholars recognize the mysterious nature of the issues involved. How a united Mongolian empire emerged out of the blue in the 13th century to establish a [...]

Mongol Empire

In 1206, the year of the Tiger, Temujin managed to unite the Merkits, Naimans, Mongols, Uighurs, Keraits, Tatars and disparate other smaller tribes under his rule through his charisma, dedication, and strong will. An Ikh Khurildai (Great Council) was announced near the Onon River, by proudly raising the state flag. The central state was officially [...]

Mongol State Structure and Organization

The supreme power rested in the hands of Genghis. However a hierarchy of power existed in positions such as Prime Minister or State Van, State Judge, Ministers and State shaman. The nine courtiers or “champs” who served loyal to the Khan were honored in the state. All champs were freed from any form of taxes.  The Council of Wise men” and [...]

Mongol State and Land Ownership

The Mongol empire was governed by a code of law called the “Great Yasa” which had provisions about electing the Khan, establishing and maintaining relationships with other countries, organizing the Ikh Khurildai (grand council), setting obligatory duties for serfs and people, and many others. Although Genghis was in effect the ultimate [...]

Mongol Khans

Kublai Khan Kublai, younger brother of Mongke Khan , was born in 1215 and became Khan in 1260. Kublai Khan transfered the capital of Great Mongolia’s Empire to Beijing and launched the Yuan dynasty which ruled Mongolia, China, and Tibet. He ruled better than his predecessors, promoting economic growth with the rebuilding of the Grand Canal, [...]

Military Organization and The Thousandth System

Genghis Khan organized his army in divisions of tens. This system already existed between nomadic tribes at that time; one of ten leads others, ten tens were subject to the chief of a hundred, ten hundreds to the chief of a thousand, and ten thousands to the chief of ten thousand respectively. Strict discipline was enforced. If a head of ten [...]

Political Structure of Mongol Empire

Political Structure of Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan had supreme power and established the posts of prime minister, state judge, shaman, minister, marshal and "darkhan". Title holders were not only pardoned for their first nine offences but were also exempt from any taxation. Genghis also created the councils of sages and Ikh Khuraldai (general assembly) to make final decisions on [...]

Religions of the Great Mongol Empire

Religions of the Great Mongol Empire

The most interesting period of the religious attitudes of the Mongols was the period when Genghis Khan founded the Great Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan and his successors idolized Shamanism and holy spirits. The shamans, who worshiped the Eternal Blue Sky, were never banned by other religious denominations. Karakorum, the capital of Great Mongol [...]