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Great Khans

The history of civilizations is created by peoples and nations. The contribution made by Mongolian people to the civilization of mankind is significant, but mysterious. Both western and oriental scholars recognize the mysterious nature of the issues involved. How a united Mongolian empire emerged out of the blue in the 13th century to establish a powerful empire of Mongols, who went on to conquer many heavily populated countries of Asia and Europe, continues to bewilder historians and scholars.

Following the establishment of the Hun Empire in 209 BC such states comprised mainly of Mongol tribes. The Sumbe, Jurchen, Tureg Khaganates and Kidan Empire existed until 1125 on the Central Asian Plateau. The largest Mongolian tribes at the time were the Khamag Mongols, Khereid, Taichuud, Mergid, Naiman, and Tatar tribes. The Khamag Mongol tribe that inhabited the basins of the Orkhon, Kherlen and Tuul rivers was one of the largest fighting to unite Mongolian tribes. At the beginning of the twelfth century it was ruled by Khabul Khan, one of whose successors was Genghis Khan’s father Yesukhei Baatar.

Yesukhei baatar, father of Temujin, the future Genghis Khan ruled over the largest of the Hamag Mongol tribes-the Taichuud.

Oulun ekh, mother of Temujin,

Genghis Khan , (Temujin)

Burte Oujin, Mother of Genghis Khan’s four children.

Yesuigen and Yesui khatan- After a second campaign, in 1202 Temujin, the young ruler of the Hamag Mongol defeat Tatars, who poisoned to death his father in 1170, makes Yesugen and Yesui, daughters of hateful Tatars’ chief Ikh Cheren his concubines.

Zochi, Genghis Khan’s eldest son. The state of Zuchi’s descendants, later named the Golden Horde. Its frontier stretched to the Dnester and the Crimea in the west and to the Irtysh in the east.
Chagaadai. Genghis Khan’s second son.

Ogodei, Genghis Khan’s third son. In 1229 on the Khodoo island in the river Kherlen, the Great Khuraldai elected Ugedei as an official successor to Genghis Khan

Tului. Genghis khan’s youngest son. Tului’s eldest son Mongke was 4th Khan of the Mongol Empire and died in 1259.

Guyuk. Ogodei’s son. Ogodei died in 1241. After four years the Great Khuraldai elected Guyuk as the new Khan. But in two years Guyuk died.

Kublai. Tului’s second son. He is a founder of the Yuan Empire.

Khavt Khasar. Brother of Genghis. In 1215 he launched a campaign against the Chin dynasty and occupied its capital, Beijing, accompanying his Khan brother.

Mukhulai, ruler of east Tumen, organized by Genghis Khan after a foundation of the Unified Mongol Empire.

Boorchi, ruler of west Tumen.

Subedei. One of the superior commanders of the Genghis Khan. In 1221 Mongol troops under his command invaded Azerbaijan and Georgia and reached the Crimea.

Zelme. He saved Genghis Khanggis Khan’s life twice and showed loyalty to him. Later, he became one of the close comrade-in-arms of Genghis Khan.

Of the eight great khans of the Mongol Empire from 1206-1294, three stand out with distinction. The first and of course most famous was Genghis Khan , who ruled from 1206-1227. Genghis united the Mongol tribes and established the Great Mongol State. His son Ogodei ruled from 1229-1241. Ogodei continued the expansion of the Mongol Empire with the strong foundation he received from his father. Genghis’ grandson Kublai was grand Khan from 1260-1294. Called the last of the Great Khans , Kublai was the founder and first emperor of the Chinese Yuan dynasty.

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