Parliament of Mongolia
The Constitution legalized the tenet that The Government is the highest executive body of the State. As the result of the State Great Khural’s election, legal conditions to establish a new Government are provided. The Government is accountable for its work to the State Great Khural and the term of its mandate is four years. The Government shall step down in its entirety upon the resignation of the Prime Minister or if half of the members of the Government resign at the same time.
As a supreme government branch, the State Great Khural has a power to enact and amend laws, determine domestic and foreign policy, ratify international agreements, and declare a state of emergency. The President is the head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces, and head of the national security council. He is popularly elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two terms. The constitution empowers the president to nominate a prime minister, call for the government’s dissolution, initiate legislation and issue decrees, which become effective with the prime minister’s signature.
As a result of democratic movements and renovations, Mongolia has moved to a new system of political freedom. Various amendments to the old constitution allowed democratic elections to be held with the participation of multiple political parties in 1991. The Great Khural passed and adopted the new Constitution in January 1992. According to the new Constitution, Mongolia has become a democratic parliamentary state. The new constitution made a distinct division of power between the legislative (Ikh Hural), executive (the President and the Government of Mongolia), and judicial bodies (State Court). The country’s President has been elected through direct elections since 1992.
The current president, Mr. Nambariin Enkhbayar, was elected in 2005. The Ikh Hural, the highest legislative body, has one chamber with 76 members. The Chairman of the Ikh Hural is Mr. Nyamdorj. The Prime-Minister is Mr. M. Enkhbold. Today the Mongolian National Democratic Party, the Mongolian Social-Democratic Party, the Mongolian Revolutionary Party and the Mongolian Conservative Party have won seats in the Parliament out of more than 10 political parties.
The word Great Khural (Khurildai) was already in the Mongolian lexicon long ago. Any essential issues of law, state, war and peace that were ordered by Genghis Khan, who founded the Mongol Empire in 1206, were discussed by the nobility at the Great Khurildai.
The present State Great Khural of Mongolia is legally similar to the parliaments in eastern and western countries where democracy has developed. In the 1992 Constitution, it was declared that “The State Great Khural is the highest branch of State power, and legislative power shall be vested solely therein”. Since 1992, the State Great Khural has been elected, by citizens qualified to vote, on the basis of universal, free, and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of four years. The State Great Khural has one chamber consisting of 76 members. Citizens of Mongolia who exercise their electoral rights and have reached the age of twenty-five are eligible for election to the State Great Khural.
The Chairman and Vice-Chairmans of the State Great Khural are nominated and elected from among the members of that body by secret ballot.
The State Great Khural is vested with a number of functions under the constitution, the foremost of which is making laws. Other functions of the State Great Khural include approval of the national budget, passing a law validating the election of the President and recognising the President’s powers, releasing him from his duties or recalling him, and appointing, replacing or removing the Prime Minister or members of the Government, defining the State’s borders and declaring a state of war. The main organisational form of the State Great Khural is the session. Regular sessions of the State Great Khural are convened once every six months. Each session shall last no less than 75 working days. Special sessions may be convened at the demand of more than one-third of the members of the State Great Khural, and/or on the initiative of the President and the Chairman of the State Great Khural. The State Great Khural establishes Standing Committees according to the type of activity. The State Great Khural maintains 7 Standing Committees and 5 subcommittees.